Cervical Cancer Treatment at World Class Hospitals in India

Most cervical cancers (80 to 90 percent) are Squamous cell cancers. Adenocarcinoma is the second most common type of cervical cancer, accounting for the remaining 10 to 20 percent of cases. Adenocarcinoma develops from the glands that produce mucus in the endocervix. While less common than squamous cell carcinoma, the incidence of adenocarcinoma is on the rise, particularly in younger women. Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other typesmay not cause any symptoms

You can reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer by having screening tests and receiving a vaccine that protects against HPV infection.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer Treatment

Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor
  • Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse

Causes of Cervical Cancer Treatment

Cervical cancer begins when healthy cells acquire a genetic change (mutation) that causes them to turn into abnormal cells.

Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, eventually dying at a set time. Cancer cells grow and multiply out of control, and they don’t die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a mass (tumor). Cancer cells invade nearby tissues and can break off from a tumor to spread (metastasize) elsewhere in the body.

It isn’t clear what causes cervical cancer, but it’s certain that HPV plays a role. HPV is very common, and most women with the virus never develop cervical cancer. This means other factors — such as your environment or your lifestyle choices — also determine whether you’ll develop cervical cancer.

Staging

If the biopsy shows that you have cancer, your doctor will do a thorough pelvic exam and may remove additional tissue to learn the extent (stage) of your disease. The stage tells whether the tumor has invaded nearby tissues, whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body.

These are the stages of cervical cancer:
  • Stage 0: The cancer is found only in the top layer of cells in the tissue that lines the cervix. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.
  • Stage I: The cancer has invaded the cervix beneath the top layer of cells. It is found only in the cervix.
  • Stage II: The cancer extends beyond the cervix into nearby tissues. It extends to the upper part of the vagina. The cancer does not invade the lower third of the vagina or the pelvic wall (the lining of the part of the body between the hips).
  • Stage III: The cancer extends to the lower part of the vagina. It also may have spread to the pelvic wall and nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum, or other parts of the body.

To learn the extent of disease and suggest a course of treatment, the doctor may order some of the following tests:

Chest x-rays: X-rays often can show whether cancer has spread to the lungs.

CT scan: An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your organs. You may receive contrast material by injection in your arm or hand, by mouth, or by enema. (Some people are allergic to contrast materials that contain iodine. Tell your doctor or nurse if you have allergies.) The contrast material makes abnormal areas easier to see. A tumor in the liver, lungs, or elsewhere in the body can show up on the CT scan.

MRI: A powerful magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of your pelvis and abdomen. The doctor can view these pictures on a monitor and can print them on film. An MRI can show whether cancer has spread. Sometimes contrast material makes abnormal areas show up more clearly on the picture.

Ultrasound: An ultrasound device is held against the abdomen or inserted into the vagina. The device sends out sound waves that people cannot hear. The waves bounce off the cervix and nearby tissues, and a computer uses the echoes to create a picture. Tumors may produce echoes that are different from the echoes made by healthy tissues. The picture can show whether cancer has spread.

Methods of Treatment

Women with cervical cancer may be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, or a combination of all three methods.

At any stage of disease, women with cervical cancer may have treatment to control pain and other symptoms, to relieve the side effects of therapy, and to ease emotional and practical problems. This kind of treatment is called supportive care, symptom management, or palliative care.

You may want to talk to your doctor about taking part in a clinical trial, a research study of new treatment methods. The section on “The Promise of Cancer Research” has more information about clinical trials.

Surgery

Surgery treats the cancer in the cervix and the area close to the tumor.

Most women with early cervical cancer have surgery to remove the cervix and uterus (total hysterectomy). However, for very early (Stage 0) cervical cancer, a hysterectomy may not be needed. Other ways to remove the cancerous tissue include conization, cryosurgery, laser surgery, or LEEP.

Some women need a radical hysterectomy. A radical hysterectomy is surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, and part of the vagina.

With either total or radical hysterectomy, the surgeon may remove both fallopian tubes and ovaries. (This procedure is a salpingo-oophorectomy.)

The surgeon may also remove the lymph nodes near the tumor to see if they contain cancer. If cancer cells have reached the lymph nodes, it means the disease may have spread to other parts of the body.


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